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Quick Overview

ReMoto was originally developed as a web-based neuronal simulation system, intended for studying spinal cord neuronal networks responsible for muscle control. The simulated networks are affected by descending drive, afferent drive, and electrical nerve stimulation. The simulator may be used to investigate phenomena at several levels of organization, e.g., at the neuronal membrane level or at the whole muscle behavior level (e.g., muscle force generation). This versatility arises because each element (neurons, synapses, muscle fibers) has its own specific mathematical model, usually involving the action of voltage- or neurotransmitter-dependent ionic channels. The simulator should be helpful in activities such as interpretation of results obtained from neurophysiological experiments in humans or mammals, proposal of hypothesis or testing models or theories on neuronal dynamics or neuronal network processing, validation of experimental protocols, and teaching neurophysiology.

The elements that take part in the system belong to the following classes: descending axons with stochastic point processes, motoneurons, synapses, tendons and muscle fibers (electrical activity and force generation), Renshaw cells, Ia inhibitory interneurons, Ib inhibitory interneurons, Ia and Ib afferents. The neurons are interconnected by chemical synapses, which can be exhibit depression or facilitation.

A more recent development was the creation of a Fortran version of the whole simulator, now including the biomechanical elements involved in a single leg force task or a position task (“subject” is supposed to be seated with one foot resting on a pedal, which is fixed in a force task, or able to rotate around an axis coincident with the ankle and having a certain moment of inertia). This new version of the multiscale simulator was created due to the great difficulties we found in expanding the original Java version and the extremely slow speed of a Python version of the simulator that was developed from the Java version. The last development using the Fortran version was focused on studying the effects of a nerve disease on different variables that could be relevant for diagnostic purposes. The axonal conduction velocities were changed following data from the neurology literature on the Guillain-Barré syndrome. The analyses of the simulation results focused on the effects on single leg force and position tasks (plus muscle EMGs) with the goal of trying to find functional correlates of the disease that could serve in a clinical setting for diagnostic purposes.

Please see at https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-2552/ac91f8

Enter here

ReMoto web-application is hosted at the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory (University of São Paulo, Brazil). Click on the button below to enter into the simulation system.


The simulator is best viewed at 1024 x 800 or higher resolution with Mozilla Firefox 4.0 or newer.

ReMoto requires Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed and enabled in your browser. Click here to download the latest version.

Embedded technologies
java struts hsql tomcat


The ReMoto project has been supported by grants from the Research Foundation of the State of São Paulo (FAPESP, Brazil) and The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil). 

fapesp cnpq
Footnote: The tridimensional figure banner appearing at the top of the page is a simulation result obtained from ReMoto and post-processed in Matlab (The MathWorks, Inc.). We have simulated a motoneuron pool of Soleus (SOL) muscle with 900 motoneurons subjected to a random descending drive that was sinusoidally modulated. Click here if you are interested in the original figure with detailed axes.